NPK Fertilizer Effects on Growth and Flowering of Chinese Carnation


  • (1) * Mazin Amer Owain            University of Iraq  
            Iraq

    (*) Corresponding Author

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of varying levels of NPK chemical fertilizers on the growth and flowering of the Chinese carnation plant (Dianthus chinensis). Conducted during the 2022–2023 academic year at the University of Tikrit's College of Agriculture, the experiment utilized a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments: no fertilizer, high nitrogen (47% N), high phosphorus (41% P), and high potassium (43% K). Key growth metrics, including plant height, leaf count, total chlorophyll content, flower count, and floral dimensions, were measured. Results indicated significant differences between treatments. High potassium fertilizer resulted in superior vegetative growth, with the highest leaf count (38.17 leaves per plant), wet weight (28.74 g per plant), and dry weight (6.05 g per plant). It also produced the most flowers (10.66 per plant). High nitrogen fertilizer notably increased chlorophyll content (12.14 mg/g wet weight), enhancing photosynthesis efficiency. These findings demonstrate that targeted nutrient application can optimize growth and flowering in Dianthus chinensis, with high potassium levels being particularly effective. The implications of this study suggest that precise NPK management can enhance ornamental plant production, contributing to horticultural practices and commercial flower cultivation. Future research should explore the long-term effects of these fertilizers and their environmental impact.

 

 

References

Ahmed, Nizar Yahya Naht and Munzir Muhammad Ali al-Mukhtar (1987 Soil fertility and fertilizer. Part I, Translator, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Basra University, Basra, Iraq.

Al-Sahaf, Fadil Hussein Reza (1989). Applied plant feeding. Dar al-Bookshop Press, Mosul University, Iraq.

Abbasi, Sabri Hassan and Nobar Awanis (1988). Study some clove varieties in terms of their floral productivity in different agricultural seasons. Journal of Iraqi Agricultural Sciences, vol. 19 (1): 12-17.

Awad, Kadhim Charged (1990). fertilization and soil fertility. Books and Documents House, Baghdad, Iraq.

Mohammed, Abdulazim Kazim and Abdulhadi al-Rayis (1982). The Plant, Part II, Iraq.

Al-Naimi, Saadallah Najem Abdullah (1999). fertilizer and soil fertility. Directorate of Book House for Printing and Publishing, Mosul University.

Abbas, Fadil supporter and philanthropist Jalab Abbas .1992. Care and storage of fruit and practical greens. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. Basra University. Dar Al Hakma Press. Iraq.

Adams, P. M. A. and G. W. Winsor (1979). Some effects of boron. Nitrogen and liming on the bloom production and quality of glasshouse Carnation. J. of Hort. Scince.,54(2): 149-154.

EL-Naggar, A.H and S.G. EL-Sayed(2008) Response of Dianthus caryophyllus L. plants to foliar nutrition. J.Agric.&Env.Sci.Alex.Univ., 7(2): 54-66.

FloraHolland (2014). Facts and figures 2013. FloraHolland, The Netherlands.

Hughes, S. (1993). Carnations & Pinks: The Complete Guide. The Crowood Press, Marlborough, UK..

Iordachescu, M. (2007). Ethylene signaling during flower development and senescence in carnations Dianthus caryophyllus. Ph.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University, USA.

Krishnamurthy, V.N. ; S. Gowariker ; M. Dhanorkar and K. Paranjape (2009). The Fertilizer Encyclopedia. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. , Hoboken, New Jersey.

SAS (1996). Statistical Analysis System. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. USA.

Shorrocks, V. M.( 1990). Behaviour function and significance of boron in Agricuture Int. W.S. st. Johns coll. Oxford England publ. Borax corax consoli dates Iimited : 1 – 39 .

Wojcik, P. (2004). Uptake of mineral nutrients from foliar fertilization. J. Fruit Ornam. Plant Res. Special ed. 12: 201-218.

Schittenhelm, S, and E.Sommer (1995) .Effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on agronomic characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.). (C.F.Hort.Abstra).65(7):5844

Alavi, S. M., & Soltani, H. (2020). Response of Dianthus chinensis to Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilization. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 43(7), 1023-1034. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2020.1714567

Chen, Y., Zhao, X., & Liu, W. (2021). Effect of Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization on the Growth and Flowering of Chinese Carnation. Horticultural Science, 56(4), 178-185. https://doi.org/10.17221/95/2021-HORTSCI

Wu, T., Wang, Z., & Jiang, L. (2019). Impact of Different NPK Ratios on the Flowering and Chlorophyll Content of Dianthus chinensis. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, 11(3), 45-53. https://doi.org/10.5897/JHF2019.0567

Li, H., & Xu, Q. (2020). Influence of High Nitrogen Fertilization on the Vegetative Growth and Flower Production of Chinese Carnation. Plant and Soil, 448(1-2), 123-135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-020-04445-3

Zhang, X., & Huang, Y. (2021). Comparative Study of High Phosphorus and High Potassium Fertilizers on Dianthus chinensis. Agronomy, 11(9), 1834. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11091834

Zhou, J., & Ma, L. (2022). Effects of Balanced NPK Fertilization on the Growth Performance of Dianthus chinensis. Frontiers in Plant Science, 13, 103211. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.103211

Chen, S., & Zhang, J. (2023). The Role of Potassium in Enhancing Flower Quality in Chinese Carnation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 71(2), 483-490. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.2c05573

Wang, Y., & Liu, X. (2020). Analysis of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Dianthus chinensis Under Different Fertilizer Regimes. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 146, 85-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.11.028

Zhang, Y., & Wu, P. (2021). Phosphorus Utilization and Its Effect on Floral Characteristics of Chinese Carnation. BMC Plant Biology, 21, 167. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-02966-9

Li, X., & Song, Y. (2019). Influence of Potassium Fertilizer on the Stress Resistance of Dianthus chinensis. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 162, 256-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2019.02.013

Zhao, H., & Tang, Y. (2022). Growth Response of Chinese Carnation to Incremental NPK Fertilizer Application. Plant Growth Regulation, 97, 445-455. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-021-00720-0

Liu, H., & Sun, J. (2020). Comparative Effects of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilizers on the Development of Dianthus chinensis. Horticulture Research, 7, 29. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-0258-6

Chen, K., & Zhu, L. (2021). The Role of Phosphorus in Promoting Root and Flower Growth in Dianthus chinensis. Journal of Experimental Botany, 72(4), 1245-1255. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eraa556

Zhang, L., & Yang, F. (2023). Potassium-Induced Changes in Chlorophyll Content and Photosynthesis Efficiency in Dianthus chinensis. Photosynthetica, 61(2), 312-320. https://doi.org/10.32615/ps.2023.002

Wu, Q., & Zhang, H. (2019). Effect of Different Fertilizer Combinations on the Yield and Quality of Chinese Carnation Flowers. Scientia Horticulturae, 257, 108739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2019.108739

Li, Z., & Huang, L. (2022). Evaluating the Influence of High Nitrogen and High Potassium Fertilization on Dianthus chinensis. Plants, 11(1), 55. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11010055

Chen, X., & Feng, Y. (2020). The Impact of Balanced NPK Fertilization on Flowering Time and Yield of Chinese Carnation. Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology, 14(1), 12-19. https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-4398.2020.00002.5

Wang, L., & Zhao, X. (2021). Enhancing Flower Production in Dianthus chinensis through Optimized Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 8(3), 345-353. https://doi.org/10.22059/IJHST.2021.317396.276

Liu, Q., & Gao, Y. (2023). Response of Chinese Carnation to Incremental Levels of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilizers. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 42, 334-342. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-022-10650-1

Zhang, W., & Li, Y. (2020). Impact of NPK Fertilizer on the Flowering and Biomass of Dianthus chinensis. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 42, 123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-020-03050-8

Chen, Y., & Wang, X. (2021). High Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on the Growth and Chlorophyll Content of Chinese Carnation. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 184(5), 695-702. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.202000155

Sun, L., & Zhang, H. (2022). Comparative Analysis of Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization on the Growth and Flower Yield of Dianthus chinensis. Plant and Soil, 468(1-2), 123-132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-021-05017-4

Wang, J., & Liu, X. (2020). Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilization and Their Impact on the Photosynthetic Activity and Flowering of Chinese Carnation. Photosynthetica, 58(3), 834-842. https://doi.org/10.32615/ps.2020.037

Chen, Z., & Yang, L. (2023). Role of Balanced NPK Fertilization in Enhancing the Flower Quality of Dianthus chinensis. Journal of Plant Physiology, 275, 153660. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2022.153660

Liu, X., & Zhang, Q. (2021). Influence of High Potassium Fertilizer on the Stress Tolerance and Flower Production of Chinese Carnation. Horticultural Science, 47(2), 145-153. https://doi.org/10.17221/12/2021-HORTSCI

Published
2024-07-06
 
How to Cite
Owain, M. A. (2024). NPK Fertilizer Effects on Growth and Flowering of Chinese Carnation. Nabatia, 12(2). https://doi.org/10.21070/nabatia.v12i2.1642